The term “vaccine” was coined by Louis Pasteur and derived from “Vacca”, meaning cow the term devised by Edward Jenner to denote cowpox. A vaccine is defined as a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease and typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from the exhaust or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.
Vaccines have two major effects:
a) Vaccines protect individuals against disease.
b) If there are sufficient immune individuals in populations, the transmission of the infection is prevented. This is known as herd immunity.
Vaccine Design mainly includes the Production of vaccines and has several stages.
Firstly, the antigen itself is generated and Viruses are grown either on primary cells such as chicken eggs (e.g., for influenza), or on continuous cell lines such as cultured human cells (e.g., for hepatitis A). Bacteria are grown in bioreactors (e.g., haemophilic influenza type B).
Alternatively, a recombinant protein will be derived from the viruses or bacteria can be generated in yeast, bacteria, or cell cultures.
Strategies in vaccine design include:
Vaccine drug delivery system is the preparations given to patients to evoke immune responses that leading to the production of antibodies or cell-mediated responses that will help in combating infectious agents or non-infectious conditions such as malignancies.
The three categories of Vaccine delivery system include:
Title : Nanomaterial-mediated systemically-administered m-rna-based Gene therapy directed exclusively to cancer, resulting in eradication of implanted orthotopic tumors with no side effects
A C Matin, Stanford University, United States
Title : Mucoadhesive electrospun fibers in oral drug delivery
Luis Jesus Villarreal Gomez, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexico
Title : Qualitative and quantitative measures of drugs’ placenta permeability - a chromatographic and computational approach
Anna Weronika Sobańska, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
Title : The signification of the blood-brain barrier to the transfer of essential and toxic mineral elements
Bartolome Ribas Ozonas, Royal National Academy of Pharmacy, Spain
Title : New excipient to formulate poorly soluble APIs
Rajendran Arunagiri, Eastman, United States
Title : Multi-detection of pharmaceutical contamination in environment
Andreia Freitas, INIAV and REQUIMTE, Portugal
Title : HDAC inhibitors with non-hydroxamate warhead
Franz Josef Meyer Almes, University of Applied Sciences, Germany
Title : The role of non-antibiotic drugs on the development of antibiotic resistance
Mujde Eryilmaz, Ankara University, Turkey
Title : Digital health: Education in clinical pharmacy and implementation in practice
Aysu selcuk, Ankara University, Turkey
Title : Pharmacovigilance – Important, current trends, challenges and opportunities
Gurpreet Singh, Freyr Lifesciences Limited, United Kingdom