Title: Veterinary Pharmaceutics: An opportunity for interprofessional cooperation

Ossama M. Sayed

Beni-Suef University, Egypt


Dr. Ossama Sayed has obtained my bachelor’s degree in pharmaceutical sciences from faculty of pharmacy, Cairo University (2003). His master’s studies were focused on delivering anti-inflammatories through skin using supersaturation strategies in form of transdermal patches. He was a member in Prof. Abdelbary group in Cairo University. His work involved working with different polymers and penetration enhancers and performing diffusion studies through artificial and biological membranes. His doctoral studies continued in the same trend of overcoming biological barriers such as buccal tissues. He was a member in skin research group in UCL School of Pharmacy led by Prof. Jonathan Hadgraft. He has gained extensive experience dealing with different strategies to overcome biological barriers. After obtaining PhD, Dr. Sayed has slightly switched his prospective of overcoming biological barriers through the use of nanoparticles and nano-lipid vesicles. He has also extended the work dealing with other biological barriers such as bacterial cell walls and biofilms. He has supervised many masters students working on bacterial cell membrane and biofilms (2 publications, under press), nanoparticles (1 publication), nanolipsomes (2 publications, under press). He is  also a team member of a funded project form STDF (Science and Technology development Fund, Egypt) with a total funding of 2 million EGP. Each of the two projects is dealing with functionalized nanoparticles and study its effect on different types of microorganisms.


The health and medical treatment of animals and humans are closely linked. Animal patients comprise a diverse range of species and can be broadly classified into the following groups; companion animals, livestock, captive animals and wildlife. Each of these groups of patients share some commonalities in health conditions as the human population and some unique to their respective life histories. For example, domestic pets are known to suffer from osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus.
Animals and humans are infected by a variety of gastrointestinal nematodes. Their effects range from trivial to fatal, depending on the site and level of infection, mode of feeding of the nematode, and the nutritional and physiological status of the host. H.s contortus is a parasite of sheep and goats worldwide. Different Haemonchus species infect other ruminants and camelids, with some cross-infection (H. placei, H. similis, cattle; H. longistipes, camels). Haemonchus spp feed on blood obtained by damaging the abomasal mucosa. The effects of infection range from inappetence and mild anaemia to mortality, particularly in younger animals.
      Albendazole (ALBZ) is methyl [5-(propylthio)-l-Hbenzimidazol-2yl] carbamate. There is a higher affinity of ALBZ for the parasite tubulin and so the activity is mainly influenced by the parasite rather than by the host. The drug inhibits the polymerization of the parasite tubulin into microtubules. The loss of the cytoplasmic microtubules leads to impaired uptake of glucose by the larval and adult stages of the parasites. The worm is then unable to maintain energy production which leads to its immobilization and eventual death.
The side effects of ALBZ including mild to moderate elevation of hepatic enzymes (15.6%), abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness or temporary hair loss, bone marrow suppression and agranulocytosis in patients with or without underlying hepatic dysfunction. ALBZ toxicity can be overcomed by accumulating of this anthelmintic agent in the form of sustained release in colon. Small and large intestine as a site of action offers distinct advantages because of a near neutral pH, a much longer transit time, reduced digestive enzymatic activity and a much greater responsiveness to absorption enhancers. Colon specific drug delivery systems have been the focus of interest due to the importance of this region of the gastrointestinal tract for local therapy.
         The aim of this study was to formulate ALBZ loaded microsponges as a new targeting delivery system for the treatment of colonic parasites. The formulated MS were characterized for the entrapping efficiency, particle sizes, and in vitro release pattern. Furthermore, the formulated MS were characterized for size, shape and morphology and surface characteristics. Finally, the formulated MS were tested for in vitro and in vivo release profile and for determination of ALBZ activity. Efficacy of MS loaded with ALBZ against Haemonchosis in goats was estimated.
Audience take away:
• Importance of veterinary aspect in pharmaceutical industry.
• See the similarities between drug delivery in animals and human.
• The use of new technology to reduce the side effects of traditional molecules