A class of fastest growing therapeutic agents, biodrugs are the complex molecules derived from living organism or its products, used in the prevention diagnosis and treatment of cancer or other diseases. These biodrugs include a vast variety of molecules including antibodies, cells, interleukins, vaccines and various proteins. The therapeutic molecules have revolutionized the treatment of many serious and chronic illnesses and have nudged the traditional drugs. Rheumatic arthritis, certain cancers, and diabetes are the diseases having greatest number of dedicated biologic treatment drugs.
Crossing through threshold in clinical activity, chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells have emerged as a new effective therapeutic regimen against various types of cancer both in adults and pediatric oncology. Currently available CARs are designed in a manner so as to be capable of MHC independent antigen recognition and incorporate costimulatory signal, converting the transduced T cells with potent T cell activity. There are three generations of CAR-T cells depending upon intracellular signalling domain number. They have higher efficacy than monoclonal antibody and antibody-drug conjugate. CAR therapy maintained especial status as cancer immunotherapeutic agent, after targeting the CD19 cell surface molecules expressed in a various types of cancers and, successfully transforming in clinic practice. Standing on the pillars of genetic engineering, T cell biology, molecular biology, tumor biology, target identification, CAR-T therapy holds great promise as off the shelf cancer therapeutic agent. But several unresolved concerns are still prevailing. Various issues with regard to safety, efficacy and their preparation, quality control issues, are still stucking the way. Cytokine release syndrome, neurological toxicities are few major side effects of the therapy blocking the successful development of CAR-T cells in the clinical trials. Our presentation shall be dealing with structural aspects of CAR T cells, target and signalling, their toxicity perspectives and current status.
Audience take away:
• In the present lecture an extensive analysis of one of the most efficient anticancer biodrug, the chimeric antigen receptors and its current status has been done. From this we can surely gain insight into the successful strategies so far available to bring this innovative biodrug in the market.
• Well many challenges still persist for the researchers working in the area. The way is not likely to be straightforward due to on /off tumor targeting and toxicity and hostile microenvironment of the cancer cells leading to less efficacious response. Cost and complexity of these product is another issue to be taken into consideration to further execute the studies in this direction to come up with the solution.