Title : Calotropis gigantea extract induces apoptosis through extrinsic/intrinsic pathways and reactive oxygen species generation in A549 and NCI-H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cells
Background: Calotropis gigantea (CG), a tall and waxy flower that has been used in treating fever, indigestion, rheumatism, leprosy and leukoderma as traditional remedies. However, it has not yet been examined about the precise mechanisms of its anti-cancer effects in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. In this study, we elucidated whether CG extract would exert the apoptotic effect in A549 and NCI-H1299 NSCLC cells.
Methods: Ethanol extract of CG was prepared, and apoptotic effects of CG extract in A549 and NCI-H1299 NSCLC cells were assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay, annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) staining, cell cycle analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blotting, JC-1 staining and ROS detection assay.
Results: CG extract induced apoptosis by stimulating intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways in A549 and NCI-H1299 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, cell cycle arrest was occurred by CG extract in both cells. Moreover, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can induce cell death was also generated in a CG-treated A549 and NCI-H1299 cells.
Conclusions: These data confirmed that CG caused apoptosis by activating the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, cell cycle arrest and generating ROS in A549 and NCI-H1299 lung cancer cells. Thus, we suggest CG as a potential agent for lung cancer prevention therapy.
Audience take away:
• Discovery of plant anti-cancer effects
• Clarification of apoptotic mechanism in lung cancer cells
• Development of potential agent for lung cancer prevention therapy