Rhodococcus are characteristic of the taxon mycolata which includes the genera Mycobacterium and Nocardia. These cells have a cell envelope characterized by the presence of long chain ?-alkyl-?-hydroxy fatty acids, called mycolic acids. T hese lipids increase the tolerance of Rhodococcus cells to the presence of toxic compounds and challenging environmental conditions . These cells are also able to modulate the composition of the fatty acids of the phospholipids of the cellular membrane as response to stressful conditions  and to produce specialized lipids . R. erythropolis may be adapted to survive high osmotic stress and conditions that are usually considered extreme [2, 4]. Additionally, Rhodococcus cells contain efflux systems able to extrude toxic compounds . These features, together with the large set of enzymes that Rhodococcus cells contain, make the cells very interesting for biocatalysis and bioremediation processes [6, 7]. Furthermore, the cells may survive when placed at 16ºC and at 100ºC for up to 15 min by adjusting the fluidity of the cellular membrane. These properties may be used to improve bioprocesses using toxic compounds such as the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons under saline conditions. In this presentation, several adaptive mechanisms of Rhodococcus cells, and how they may be exploited to improve biotechnological processes, will be discussed.