Title : Glucose-Responsive Insulin Delivery Systems
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of chronic progressive diseases caused by abnormality in glucose homeostasis or insulin secretion. Insulin therapy serves as a vital control in Type 1 and last stages of Type 2. Despite ample efforts having been made in methods of insulin therapy, limited success has been achieved yet in this area, whereas traditional insulin injection is still preferred by patients. The injection has several drawbacks like problems with daily activities, pain, and awkwardness. Improving the insulin therapy methods can be very helpful in increasing the therapeutic effectiveness and decreasing its side effects, and consequently can enhance the patients’ quality of life. As a result, non-invasive methods have been developed during the years. Beyond the general properties that should be considered for designing an insulin delivery system, smartness and on-demand delivery systems could be applied to increase the effectiveness of these systems. Various glucose-responsive insulin delivery systems Based on Phenylboronic Acid, Concanavalin A, and Glucose Oxidase imitate the normal insulin secretion from β- cells in the pancreas regulates that release based on blood glucose levels (BGLs). This article presents a comprehensive review of the insulin therapy approach with a focus on glucose-sensitive insulin delivery strategies and current advances in engineered insulin delivery systems.